**Paper:** Framework for a Self-Managed Wireless Sensor Cloud for Critical Event Management
**Authors:** Nithya G. Nair, Philip J. Morrow and Gerard P. Parr
**Abstract:** Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can be widely used for managing various scenarios existing in social, industrial and numerous environmental management systems. They have been widely used in environmental monitoring and management applications and have also found application in disaster management scenarios. One of the greatest problems faced by the scientific community in organizing data collection through sensor networks in areas of disaster is the disorder and destruction brought about in the communication systems prevailing in such situations. In this paper, a scientific study of the various scenarios that could occur post-disaster and the various housekeeping functions each sensor node would adopt as part of the self management requirement is provided. We also present a sensor task management framework that could be implemented to provide a low energy consuming, reliable network for WSNs deployed for critical infrastructure management.
**Paper:** Middleware Mechanisms for Agent Mobility in Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks
**Authors:** Petros Lampsas, Nikos Tziritas, Giorgis Georgakoudis, Spyros Lalis, Tomasz Paczesny, Jarosław Domaszewicz and Thanasis Loukopoulos
**Abstract:** This paper describes middleware-level support for agent mobility, targeted at hierarchically structured wireless sensor and actuator network applications. Agent mobility enables a dynamic deployment and adaptation of the application on top of the wireless network at runtime, while allowing the middleware to optimize the placement of agents, e.g., to reduce wireless network traffic, transparently to the application programmer. The paper presents the design of the mechanisms and protocols employed to instantiate agents on nodes and to move agents between nodes. It also gives an evaluation of a middleware prototype running on Imote2 nodes that communicate over ZigBee. The results show that our implementation is reasonably efficient and fast enough to support the envisioned functionality on top of a commodity multi-hop wireless technology. Our work is to a large extent platform-neutral, thus it can inform the design of other systems that adopt a hierarchical structuring of mobile components.
**Paper:** Modelling and Simulation of Underwater Low-Power Wake-Up Systems
**Authors:** Salvador Climent, Antonio Sanchez, Juan Vicente Capella, Sara Blanc and Juan José Serrano
**Abstract:** Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSN) have become an important area of research due to its many possible applications. One example are the long-term monitoring applications were the nodes only need to be awake during a small fraction of time. This kind of applications can greatly benefit from low-power wake-up systems. However, despite the fact that the simulations can greatly improve the development time of new algorithms and features, optimizing their performance, up until today there is no wake-up system model available. In this paper a low-power underwater wake-up model for the ns-3 simulator is going to be presented. Using this model the, as far as we know, only two available underwater modems with integrated wake-up capabilities are compared in terms of energy consumption.
**Paper:** Collaborative Sensing Platform for Eco Routing and Environmental Monitoring
**Authors:** Markus Duchon, Kevin Wiesner, Alexander Müller and Claudia Linnhoff-Popien
**Abstract:** During the past decades, ecological awareness has been steadily gaining popularity. Especially in so called Megacities, the burden caused by air pollution is very high, as millions of people live together in a localized manner. To be aware of the current pollution status, selective measuring stations where deployed in the past. The idea of this work is to enable the masses to participate in obtaining and using their own measurements, e.g. with future generations of mobile phones that are equipped with adequate sensors. The proposed platform allows for a high resolution environmental monitoring and provides additional services such as Eco Routing or visualization. Furthermore, we will present the results of the platform's performance as well as a comparison between the traditional (shortest/fastest) routing and the novel (shortest/fastest) Eco Routing approach.
**Paper:** Integrate WSN to the Web of Things by using XMPP
**Authors:** Pin Nie, Jukka Nurminen
**Abstract:** Wireless Sensor Network is a promising technology thanks to its numerous beneficial applications. The recent trend towards Web of Things leverages substantial web technologies and toolkits, which greatly simplify the chore of WSN application development. However, the complex web server and heavy HTTP communications impose difficulties on portability of WSN applications and node's resources management. In order to provide a lightweight web integration and uniform data representation, we propose to employ XMPP, an open standard formalized by IETF, to build instant messaging and presence service for wireless sensor nodes. In this paper, we develop a scalable and flexible XMPP sensor bot to integrate WSN into generic XMPP architecture. We also design two lightweight XMPP extensions for sensor node representation and task configuration. The efficient XML expression in our extension protocol can squeeze the payload into a single IEEE 802.15.4 packet and does not cause XMPP message fragmentation. Our solution works directly on MAC layer without the need of TCP/IP stack. Based on our sensor bot, we propose a novel application for product validation and customer behavior analysis with RFID/NFC technology on smartphones to demonstrate a new context-aware service.
**Paper:** The need for standardized tests to evaluate the reliability of data transport in wireless medical systems
**Authors:** Ricardo Simoes, Helena Fernandez-Lopez, José A. Afonso and J. H. Correia
**Abstract:** Wireless medical systems are comprised of four stages, namely the medical device, the data transport, the data collection and the data evaluation stages. Whereas the performance of the first stage is highly regulated, the others are not. This paper concentrates on the data transport stage and argues that it is necessary to establish standardized tests to be used by medical device manufacturers to provide comparable results concerning the communication performance of the wireless networks used to transport medical data. Besides, it suggests test parameters and procedures to be used to produce comparable communication performance results.
**Paper:** Link Stability in a Wireless Sensor Network - an Experimental Study
**Authors:** Reinhardt Karnapke, Stefan Lohs, Jörg Nolte
**Abstract:** Most routing protocols proposed for wireless sensor networks are based on the standard approach also used in many other types of networks, e.g. MANETS, even though the conditions are drastically different. To evaluate the usefulness of reactive routing protocols based on route discovery by flooding of route request messages it is necessary to understand the nature of the underlying wireless communication links. In this work we present the results of connectivity measurements conducted with current sensor node hardware, taking special interest in the number of unidirectional links present and the frequency of link changes.